The Kingdom of Bhutan lies in the eastern Himalayas and covers 47,000 sq. kms. In the north the country is mountainous, falling to forested mountainous ridges and fertile valleys descending to low foothills in the south. The north has permanent snowfields and the south has sub-tropical forest. The cultivated central uplands support the bulk of the population.

The climate varies according to altitude. The north is cold and permanently snowcapped but the cold in central Bhutan is less severe. Rainfall is moderate in the central plateau but torrential in the south. Temperatures vary from 4°C in January to 17°C in July.